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 The Price of Tea in China?

by borrowisely.com


 Current LGBT rights and worldwide laws

 LGBT-Friendly Campus Climate Index
Coming Out: Resources for GLBT Hmong and families and friends



On this page are third-party educational resources that may serve as a starting point to generate greater cultural awareness and exchange of multicultural ideas. Asians & Friends Denver is not responsible for content and the following is for informative, education purposes only.



Pahoua K. Yang, A Phenomenological Study of the Coming Out Experiences of Gay and Lesbian Hmong University of Minnesota, December 2008



SOY is the first Hmong organization for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender



TEEB MEEM UA NEEJ
Hmoob Nkes (Hmong Gay)/ Thaum Txij neej Rov Nyiam Txiv neej,
Poj niam rov Nyiam Poj niam



Tus sau: Lindy

Ntsiab Lus: Txij neej nyiam txiv neej / Gay; Txij neej rov qab sib nyiam los sis poj niam rov qab sib nyiam / homosexuality; Kev hloov hauv Hmoob lub neej / social change; neeg yog pojniam thiab txiv neej / transsexuality


Foreword: For the past 3 years, while teaching Hmong language and culture, I have observed that the theme of gay and lesbianism interests a lot Hmong students: they often asked questions about the topic, and even proposed semester projects as the one that Lindy has written here. I am aware that this theme is still very sensitive, capable to hurt deeply parents and children, and gives birth to debate, misundertanding and conflicts. People still question the soundness of homosexuality whether or not it is against nature. I decided to publish Lindy's work because I think it is important to think more about the taboo and the forbidden that pushes the frontiers of human behaviors and reinvente societies, gender roles. Let's keep in mind that the gay and lesbian issue has dimensions that are different in a patrilinear society where men are the holders of the tradition and identity. In fact, Hmong gays and lesbians do face a bigger challenge: they have to overcome a double rejection, e.g from their own community and the Mainstream society. It is not good to be gay or lesbian in the Hmong community because there is no alternative other than becoming a marginalized person living on the edge. This issue is a very serious issue that we all need to take time to talk about because we need to understand the homosexuality in which a small fraction of the after-1975 generation openly chooses to live. Beyond collective fear of transgression of the norms, we shall recognize that being an outspoken gay or lesbian is still an act of courage and of integrity. Kao-Ly Yang PhD Editor


I. Nco Txog ib Tug Poj Niam Zoo Li Txiv Neej
"Thaum kuv tseem nyob tebchaws Nplog, kuv pom ib tug pojniam muaj li plaub caug tawm xyoo los thov pw ib hmo hauv kuv niam tais tsev. Tus pojniam no hnav khaub ncaws tub rog thiab nws hais lus zoo li txiv neej. Tus neeg no lav tau tias nws txawj khawv koob, tshuab taub hau, thiab saib tes. Nws lub npe yog pojniam thiab txiv neej ob lub npe ua ke. Thaum ntawd, kuv tseem muaj 10 xyoo xwb. Kuv tsis tau pom ib tug neeg zoo li no ces kuv txawm nug kuv niam: "Ua li cas tus pojniam ntawd hnav khaub ncaws thiab hais lus zoo li txiv neej?" Cov laus tsis pom qab piav rau peb cov hluas li. Hmo ntawd, cov laus txawm nug tus qhua tias ua li cas nws lub npe muaj npe pojniam thiab txiv neej. Tus pojniam txawm piav tias thaum nws yug los, nws yeej muaj "ob yam" nyob rau hauv. Thaum nws tseem yau, nws tsis paub meej hais tias nws yog pojniam los sis txiv neej li. Nws niam thiab nws txiv kuj tsis pom qab ua li cas. Thaum ntawd, tsis muaj kws kho mob paub txog tej yam txawv li no thiab. Txij thaum nws paub tab los, nws tsis pom qab nrog Hmoob nyob thiab ua neej tsis tau nrog leej twg. Li no, nws thiaj li ua ib siab khiavntawm nws tsev neeg mus, ua rau nws tsis muaj chaw nyob li. Nws cia li ua ib tug neeg loj leeb, mus thov luag tej mov noj, mus thawj luag tej chaws pw. Cov laus tsis ntseeg nws li. Lawv hais rau nws, "Tsis txaus ntseeg li! Koj dag peb xwb! Koj puas muaj peev xwm hle koj lub ris rau peb saib?" Tus pojniam ntawd tseem teb lawv, "Hle los kuj hle tiag. Kuv yeej kam hle rau nej saib!" Thaum tus pojniam hais li ntawd cev cov laus ntsiag to lawm."-H H, 2006


II. Qhov Teebmeem Tshiab Nyob Hauv Hmoob Haiv Neeg
Hmoob yog ib haiv neeg uas muaj kev tso siab loj heev rau lawv cov menyuam nrog lawv cov kwv tij. Lawv ntseeg hais tias kev vam meej nyob ntawm txoj kev sib hlub thiab hawm yus cov pojkoob yawmtxwv. Lawv ib txwm coj kev dab qhua nruj heev. Kev cai dab qhua no yog txiv neej coj, poj niam tsis coj: thaum ib tug ntxhais twg mus yuav txiv, nws tawm rooj mus ua lwm tsev neeg neeg, mus coj kev dab qhua li nws tus txiv. Kev ua neej li no, leej niam leej txiv yeej qhuab yeej qhia ib tiam dhau ib tiam kom cov tub nyab ua lub neej li cov poj koob yawg koob ib txwm ua los. Ntau ntau tus neeg Hmoob laus tsis xav kom tej kev cai dab qhuas no ploj vim hais tias thoob plaws qab ntuj khwb no tsis muaj leej twg yuav coj dab qhuas xws li peb Hmoob. Qhov no ua rau Hmoob muaj nqis li ib haiv neeg tseem.
Asmeslivkas yog ib lub tebchaws vam meej thiab muaj ntau yam neeg ntau txoj kev txawj kev ntse mus nrhiav nyiaj nrhiav txiaj. Tabsis cov coob uas los nyob rau tebchaws Asmeslivkas no pauv zuj zus mus rau kev cai tshiab lawm. Txoj kev xaiv txij xaiv nkawm los pauv lawm thiab: tam si no, pom muaj ib co txiv neej Hmoob uas cia li rov nyiam txij neej thiab poj niam Hmoob rov nyiam poj niam. Cov neeg no Asmeslivaks hu ua "Gay" los sis kuv muab sau ua "NKES". Yeej zais tsis tau lawm. Nyob hauv peb haiv neeg, muaj cov txiv neej thiab poj niam Hmoob nkes. Kev ua nkes no yog ib yam es txawv kawg rau Hmoob. Hmoob coob leej yeej tsis pom qab ntau nqi rau txoj kev coj tshiab no. Vim li cas pojniam thiaj nyiam tau pojniam? Vim li cas txiv neej rov nrog txiv neej ua neej? Tsis tas li, tseem muaj ntau tus nug tias yog nyob li no lawm, ob txij nkawm nkes nkawd yuav muaj kev sib hlub thiab ua niam txiv li cas. Muaj ntau ntau yam lus nug txog kev ua nkes kawg.
Yuav txais kev ua nkes no li cas? Li cas los, peb sawv daws yuav tau coj qhov teeb meem no los tham thiab nthuav tawm kom muaj chaw taug mus. Yog hais tias ib hnub twg, cia li muaj ob tug txiv neej sib yuav ne, leej twg yuav ua tus nkauj nyab? Puas yuav ua tshoob? Yog ua no, yuav pib li cas rooj tshoob? Hos yog ob tug hluas nkauj sib yuav ne, leej twg yuav yog tus vauv? Tej no yog kev yuav tshwm sim txawm hais tias Hmoob yeej coj tej kev lis kev cai no nruj heev. Kev coj li no puas phiv tej dab qhuas? yog phiv ne, yuav ua li cas thiaj coj tsis phiv (Hawj, 2006)? Txawm peb haiv neeg Hmoob coj kev cai tshiab los sis qub, lawv yeej tseem ntau nqi loj heev rau kev kwv tij neej tsa. Yog li no ne, cov neej nkes no yuav ua li cas thiaj li haum xeeb nrog lawv tsev neej. Tej niam tej txiv yuav ua cas hu tus nyab yog nws yog ib tug txiv neej. Lawv yuav ua cas hu tus vauv yog nws yog ib tug poj niam. Tej teeb meem no yeej tshuam rau kev ua dab qhuas thiab kev sib hu sib fim hauv vaj hauv tsev.
Lub 5 hlis ntuj hnub 11, xyoo 2001, tau muaj ob tug ntxhais hmoob uas tau mus tuag nyob lub pag dej Millerton ze Fresno, California. Nkawd tau siv ib txoj siv tawv los khi nkawd ob lub cev ua ke, ua ntej yuav mus dhia pas dej. Ib tug yog Paj Nyiag Xyooj uas muaj 17 xyoo, hos ib tug yog Yis Yaj muaj 21 xyoo. Vim li cas ob tug ntxhais no tau mus dhia dej tuag? Qhov tseeb uas daim ntawv xovxwm Fresno Bee tau qhia tawm yog li no: Paj Nyiag tham Yis Yaj li tham ib tug hluas nraug. Leej niam yeej tsis pom zoo li: nws piav rau Paj Nyiag hais tias, nyob ntawm kev cai Hmoob, tej kev sib hlub li no muaj tsis tau. (Fresno Bee, 2002). Ces ob tug hluas nkauj nkes thiaj cia li mus dhia dej tuag.
Tej yam teeb meem tshwm sim tshiab li no yeej ua chaw xav ntau yam: cov laus tsis pom qab yuav nrhiav kev lo kho li cas. Thaum muab txoj sia los ua lus qhia lub siab rau sawvdaws thim xav, sawv daws yuav tau tig rov los xav seb puas tsim nyog sib kho. Yog peb tsis los kho tej no ne, dab tsi yuav tawm tuaj ntxiv thiab? Li cas los, yeej tsis yoojyim kiag. Tab sis yuav tsum muaj kev taug xwb yog peb sawvdaws koom tau siab thiab pom hais tias muaj nqi.


III. Kev Ua Neeg Nkes thiab Kev kawm txog los ntawv cov "Sciences"
Rawv li cov kev tshawb fawb nrhiav, lawv xav paub seb kev ua neeg nkes no yog tim roj ntsha los sis yog tim neeg kev coj xwb. Cov tub ntxhais tshawb nrhiav kuj nrhiav tau ntau yam txog cov tib neeg nkes. Tiam sis lawv kuj hais tias tseem tshuav ntau yam es lawv paub tsis tas txog los sis tsis tag thiab. Pivtxwv tias lawv tseem tsis tau paub tseeb tias puas yog ib tug neeg cov roj ntsha (genetics) los nws kev qhuab qhia cob menyuam (nurture) es thiaj ua rau menuam loj hlob mus ua neeg nkes (Wikipedia, 2006). Cov lawv paub zoo yog:
1. cov txiv neej nkes lub hlwb zoo xws li poj niam lub hlwb.
2. cov txiv neej nkes cov taub teg (fingerprint) zoo li poj niam cov
3. cov menyuam ntxaib, yog tias muaj ib tug yog nkes,ces tus tod yeej muaj feem puas ntau yuav ua nkes thiab. (Wikipedia, 2006)
Tam si no, muaj ntau lub koomhaum coj qhia tau pom tias kev ua neeg nkes no txwv tsis tau li, hloov tsis tau. Thaum ub, lawv tau xav yuam kev hais tias kev ua nkes no hloov tau vim hais tias lawv ntseeg hais tias kev ua nkes yog tim kab mob uas yuav kho tau. Thaum cov koomhaum tig los ntseeg tias kev ua nkes no tsis yog tim kab mob lawm, lawv thiaj tau hais tawm tias tsis toob kaas kho txawm hais tias tseem tshuav ib txhia neeg kho mob uas tseem ntseeg tias kev nkes no kho tau. Tiam sis tsuas hnov lawv hais xwb, tsis muaj ib yam tshuaj dabtsi los kho kiag (Wikipedia, 2006).
Raws li daim ntawv suav neeg Demographics Census 2000, muaj li 132 khub niam txiv hmoob nkes nyob rau hauv tebchaws Asmeslivkas. Cov coob nyob rau lub lav Kaslisfausnias (California) uas muaj 55 khub los tshaj. Lav thij 2 yog Misnesxaustas uas muaj li 28 khub. Cov lav muaj tsawg xws li 1 khub xwb yog Aslavxaskas (Alaska), Ntsausntsias (Georgia), Ausresnkawn (Oregon), Xawv Kesrauslaisnas (South Carolina), Yustas (Utah), thiab Wavsiisteem (Washington). (ACCEPT, 2000)

Nyob rau daim ntawv xov xwm Hmong Today, Xeeb Lauj, ib tug tub hluas Hmoob, yuav yog thawj tug uas tau sau tawm txog nws txoj kev yug ua nkes. Nws hais li no: Txij thaum nws niam yug nws, nws pib nyiam txiv neej thaum nws tseem yau lawm. Nws xav hais tias kev ua nkes tsis yog ib qho txhaum kev cai vim hais tias nws niam nws txiv yug tau nws los zoo li ntawd: nws pauv tsis tau nws tus kheej. Txoj kev hlub ntawm ob tug neeg nkes yeej yog nyias yeem nyias: tsis txhaum kev cai dab tsi yog yus muaj tshaj 18 xyoo. Nws ntseeg tau tias yeej yog vim nws niam nws txiv yug tau nws los zoo li ntawm no. Qho ntawd tsis yog tim leejtwg los sis kab mob dab tsi. Nyob ntawm nws tus kheej, nws xav tias nws yeej yog ib tug tib neeg es yug los rau hauv lub ntiaj teb no los coj li ntawd ces yog nws txoj hmoov. (Hmong Today, 2004)


IV. Neeg kev nkag siab rau kev ua nkes- Cultural/Societal Aspect on being Hmong and Gay
Vim li cas feem coob tsis nyiam neeg nkes? Tej zaum, yuav yog vim neeg kev pom kev ua neej: neeg ntseeg tau hais tias yog ib tug txiv neej tsis yuav pojniam ces nws tsis muaj me tub me nyuam, qhov no yog ib qho tsis zoo. Tsis zoo vim li cas? Muaj ntau qhov yuav qhia tau: cia kuv piav ib qho. Niam txiv ib txwm vam thiab ntshaw tias lawv tej menyuam yuav los tuav lawv lub npe thiab ua kwv tij sib pab sib hlub. Yog tus menyuam yog neeg nkes ces tsis muaj kev vam yuav tau xeeb leej xeeb ntxwv los khawv lub noob neej cab ces mus. Tsev neeg ntawd yuav tus noob. Neeg Hmoob ntsia yam no muaj nqi tshaj rau lawv lub neej. (Hawj, 2006)
Tab sis, nyob tej lub zos xws li Minnesota, cov thawj coj ntawm cov neeg ntseeg ntuj thiab ib txhia nom tswv tsis txaus siab tso cai rau cov neeg nkes sib yuav. Ob pab neeg sib koom ua ke los hais rau pej xeem thiab lub zos hais tias txiv neej yuav txiv neej los sis poj niam yuav poj niam yuav txhaum kev lis kev cai. Kev sib yuav tsuas pub rau ib tug txij neej twg yuav ib tug pojniam twg xwb. (Hmong Today, 2004)
V. Kev Txhim Kho Rau Yav Tom Ntej
Tam si no, cov Hmoob nkes muaj peev xwm tawm suab tawm npe coob leej. Lawv xav piav lawv lub neej thiab tej kev lawv xam pom rau sawvdaws paub vim hais tias lawv xav kom sawvdaws nkag siab hais tias lawv kuj yog neeg tib yam thiab. Txij thaum cov Hmoob nkes tawm suab zuj zus, ob peb lub koom haum pib los pab txhawb lawv thiab. Phiab Xyooj uas yog ib tug social worker nyob rau Minnesota, cia siab tias sawvdaws yuav pib nkag siab rau cov Hmoob nkes. Nws pib tau ib lub koom haum hu ua SOY, Shades of Yellow. Muaj li 35 leej neeg los thov kev pab ntawm lub koos haum SOY. Nws lub homphiaj pab cov neeg nkes yog los piav lawv tej kev txom nyem, tej yam es neeg tsis paub txog thiab ua kom cov neeg nkes thiab lawv niam lawv txiv sib haum xeeb sib zam (Jackson, 2006).
Thaum lub 1 hlis ntuj, hnub 21, xyoo 2006, lub koom haum SOY pib ib lub peb caug rau cov neeg nkes. Muaj li 300 leej tau tuaj koom thiab saib cov ntxhais hluas hnav khaub ncaws hmoob los seev cev rau sawvdaws saib. Muaj noj mov, hais paj huam, thiab piav txog cov neeg nkes tej neej rau sawvdaws hnov. Nws ntseeg tau tias yog sawvdaws pib paub zuj zus txog tej yam no ces sawvdaws yuav tsis tshua ntshai txog lawm. Thaum muaj neeg paub zuj zus, kev ntshai ploj lawm ces kev cia siab thiab sib vam yuav tshwm sim tuaj. Thaum zoo li no lawm, tej kev los sib tham sib kho ntawm cov neeg nkes thiab tsis nkes yuav pib. Tej zaum nyob rau hauv tej dab qhua yuav muaj kev los hloov kom haum rau cov Hmoob nkes. Tej zaum cov niam cov txiv yuav pib nkag siab rau lawv cov menyuam uas yog neeg nkes. Tej zaum cov kwv tij neej tsa yuav kam pib los sib tham sib kho ntawm tej kev lis kev cai kom nrhiav tau ib txoj kev rau sawvdaws taug. Tej zaum dab qhua yuav tsis thooj li tej poj koob yawm txwv ua cia. Tiam sis, ua li no yuav ib qhib kev rau cov neeg nkes taug thiab.
Hmoob kev ua dab ua qhua yeej hloov tau vim twb hloov ntau zaus lawm xws li hauv tsev neeg Hmoob Lis xya txim: tej laus ua dab neeg piav hais tias niam thiab txiv hlub hlub ntxhais vauv ces thaum ua dab roog thiaj li qee ob tais rau ntxhais vauv, ua rau cov Hmoob lis thiaj mus ua Hmoob Lis xya txim (rau 7 lub tais). Tej dab qhuas no twb hloov tau vim kev hlub. Li no, yuav tsum muaj kev kho tau kev cai dab qhuas kom taug tau rau cov tib neeg nkes thiab. Dab qhuas los yeej yog los ntawm lub qhov ncauj xwb.


VI. Lus Xaus
Txawm hais tias lawm tus neeg los sis yus tus neeg yog nkes, nws yeej yog ib tug neeg muaj siab muaj ntsws tib yam li sawvdaws thiab. Cov neeg nkes yeej ntshaw txoj kev hlub thiab xav kom nom tswv pub cai rau lawv muaj txij muaj nkaws xws teb xws chaw, muaj ib tug hlub lawv pab lawv mus txog hnub lawv pub 120 xyoo. Li no, sawv dwas yuav tau los xav txog txoj kev ntsaw kev sib hluv. Tej zaum yuav tau hloov Hmoob Kev lis kev cai sib yuav uas pub tus txiv neej nkes ua tshoob thiab tus poj niam nkes ua tshoob thiab. Vim hais tias tej kev cai no yog neeg tsim rau neeg taug xwb. Yog li ntawd, peb yuav tsum sib kho kom txhob muaj kev sib cais ntawv cov neeg nkes thiab cov neeg tsis yog nkes vim hais tias sawvdaws yeej muaj kev npau suav tib yam, muaj kev cia siab tib yam. Peb sawv daws yog neeg xwb, peb sawv daws ntshaw kev hlub xwb. Rov

Rov Nce Mus Saud

Cov Yam Kuv Tshawb Fawb
1.H, H, Personal interview, asthiv 7, lub 4 hlis ntuj 2006,
2.Homosexuality and Medical Science.Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homosexuality_and_medical_science
3.Jackson, Tom. Nearly Invisible. Gay Asians with HIV. Gay News Blog. Sau rau hnub 21, lub 1 hli, xyoo 2006. http://www.gaynewsblog.typepad.com/gay_news_blog/2006/01/21/
4.Lawj, Xeeb. Gay-Lesbian-Bisexual-Transgender Hmong People. Hmong Today. Sau rau hnub 11, lub 3 hli, xyoo 2004.
http://www.hmongtoday.com/displaynews.asp?ID=1542
5.Lost in America:Embracing the Forbidden. Fresno Bee. Sau rau hnub 11, lub 8 hli, xyoo 2002. http://www.fresnobee.com/special/hmong/pnxiong/
6.Mouachuepao, Kathy. GLBT Hmong Coming Out Party. Hmong Today. Sau rau hnub 3, lub 2 hli, xyoo 2006. http://www.hmongtoday.com/displaynews.asp?ID=2144
7.Mouachuepao, Kathy. Religious Leaders Rally Against Gay Marriage. Hmong Today. Sau rau hnub 20, lub 5 hli, xyoo 2004.
http://www.hmongtoday.com/displaynews.asp?ID=1617
8.Tucker, Denis. ACCEPT. Accepting Cultural Change Through Education, Prevention, and Trust. www.acceptgayhmong.org
9.Vang, Keng. Welcome to My World, GayHmong!
http://www.geocities.com/gayhmong/


Daim ntawv sau rau Dr Nkauj Hli Yaj Hoob "Hmong Advanced 101" nyob California State University of Fresno, Lub 5 hli, hnub 2, Xyoo 2006

Copyrights 2006 Lindy Her-Lee
All rights reserved

http://www.hmongcontemporaryissues.com/archives/HmongGayLindy051906.html





Hmong Gay (homosexuel) : Quand les hommes aiment les hommes et les femmes aiment les femmes
"Langue hmong - version originale"
"Version française"

TEEB MEEM UA NEEJ
Hmoob Nkes (Hmong Gay)/ Thaum Txij neej Rov Nyiam Txiv neej, Poj niam rov Nyiam Poj niam


I. Nco Txog ib Tug Poj Niam Zoo Li Txiv Neej


"Thaum kuv tseem nyob tebchaws Nplog, kuv pom ib tug pojniam muaj li plaub caug tawm xyoo los thov pw ib hmo hauv kuv niam tais tsev. Tus pojniam no hnav khaub ncaws tub rog thiab nws hais lus zoo li txiv neej. Tus neeg no lav tau tias nws txawj khawv koob, tshuab taub hau, thiab saib tes. Nws lub npe yog pojniam thiab txiv neej ob lub npe ua ke. Thaum ntawd, kuv tseem muaj 10 xyoo xwb. Kuv tsis tau pom ib tug neeg zoo li no ces kuv txawm nug kuv niam: "Ua li cas tus pojniam ntawd hnav khaub ncaws thiab hais lus zoo li txiv neej?" Cov laus tsis pom qab piav rau peb cov hluas li. Hmo ntawd, cov laus txawm nug tus qhua tias ua li cas nws lub npe muaj npe pojniam thiab txiv neej. Tus pojniam txawm piav tias thaum nws yug los, nws yeej muaj "ob yam" nyob rau hauv. Thaum nws tseem yau, nws tsis paub meej hais tias nws yog pojniam los sis txiv neej li. Nws niam thiab nws txiv kuj tsis pom qab ua li cas. Thaum ntawd, tsis muaj kws kho mob paub txog tej yam txawv li no thiab. Txij thaum nws paub tab los, nws tsis pom qab nrog Hmoob nyob thiab ua neej tsis tau nrog leej twg. Li no, nws thiaj li ua ib siab khiavntawm nws tsev neeg mus, ua rau nws tsis muaj chaw nyob li. Nws cia li ua ib tug neeg loj leeb, mus thov luag tej mov noj, mus thawj luag tej chaws pw. Cov laus tsis ntseeg nws li. Lawv hais rau nws, "Tsis txaus ntseeg li! Koj dag peb xwb! Koj puas muaj peev xwm hle koj lub ris rau peb saib?" Tus pojniam ntawd tseem teb lawv, "Hle los kuj hle tiag. Kuv yeej kam hle rau nej saib!" Thaum tus pojniam hais li ntawd cev cov laus ntsiag to lawm."-H H, 2006


II. Qhov Teebmeem Tshiab Nyob Hauv Hmoob Haiv Neeg


Hmoob yog ib haiv neeg uas muaj kev tso siab loj heev rau lawv cov menyuam nrog lawv cov kwv tij. Lawv ntseeg hais tias kev vam meej nyob ntawm txoj kev sib hlub thiab hawm yus cov pojkoob yawmtxwv. Lawv ib txwm coj kev dab qhua nruj heev. Kev cai dab qhua no yog txiv neej coj, poj niam tsis coj: thaum ib tug ntxhais twg mus yuav txiv, nws tawm rooj mus ua lwm tsev neeg neeg, mus coj kev dab qhua li nws tus txiv. Kev ua neej li no, leej niam leej txiv yeej qhuab yeej qhia ib tiam dhau ib tiam kom cov tub nyab ua lub neej li cov poj koob yawg koob ib txwm ua los. Ntau ntau tus neeg Hmoob laus tsis xav kom tej kev cai dab qhuas no ploj vim hais tias thoob plaws qab ntuj khwb no tsis muaj leej twg yuav coj dab qhuas xws li peb Hmoob. Qhov no ua rau Hmoob muaj nqis li ib haiv neeg tseem.
Asmeslivkas yog ib lub tebchaws vam meej thiab muaj ntau yam neeg ntau txoj kev txawj kev ntse mus nrhiav nyiaj nrhiav txiaj. Tabsis cov coob uas los nyob rau tebchaws Asmeslivkas no pauv zuj zus mus rau kev cai tshiab lawm. Txoj kev xaiv txij xaiv nkawm los pauv lawm thiab: tam si no, pom muaj ib co txiv neej Hmoob uas cia li rov nyiam txij neej thiab poj niam Hmoob rov nyiam poj niam. Cov neeg no Asmeslivaks hu ua "Gay" los sis kuv muab sau ua "NKES". Yeej zais tsis tau lawm. Nyob hauv peb haiv neeg, muaj cov txiv neej thiab poj niam Hmoob nkes. Kev ua nkes no yog ib yam es txawv kawg rau Hmoob. Hmoob coob leej yeej tsis pom qab ntau nqi rau txoj kev coj tshiab no. Vim li cas pojniam thiaj nyiam tau pojniam? Vim li cas txiv neej rov nrog txiv neej ua neej? Tsis tas li, tseem muaj ntau tus nug tias yog nyob li no lawm, ob txij nkawm nkes nkawd yuav muaj kev sib hlub thiab ua niam txiv li cas. Muaj ntau ntau yam lus nug txog kev ua nkes kawg.
Yuav txais kev ua nkes no li cas? Li cas los, peb sawv daws yuav tau coj qhov teeb meem no los tham thiab nthuav tawm kom muaj chaw taug mus. Yog hais tias ib hnub twg, cia li muaj ob tug txiv neej sib yuav ne, leej twg yuav ua tus nkauj nyab? Puas yuav ua tshoob? Yog ua no, yuav pib li cas rooj tshoob? Hos yog ob tug hluas nkauj sib yuav ne, leej twg yuav yog tus vauv? Tej no yog kev yuav tshwm sim txawm hais tias Hmoob yeej coj tej kev lis kev cai no nruj heev. Kev coj li no puas phiv tej dab qhuas? yog phiv ne, yuav ua li cas thiaj coj tsis phiv (Hawj, 2006)? Txawm peb haiv neeg Hmoob coj kev cai tshiab los sis qub, lawv yeej tseem ntau nqi loj heev rau kev kwv tij neej tsa. Yog li no ne, cov neej nkes no yuav ua li cas thiaj li haum xeeb nrog lawv tsev neej. Tej niam tej txiv yuav ua cas hu tus nyab yog nws yog ib tug txiv neej. Lawv yuav ua cas hu tus vauv yog nws yog ib tug poj niam. Tej teeb meem no yeej tshuam rau kev ua dab qhuas thiab kev sib hu sib fim hauv vaj hauv tsev.
Lub 5 hlis ntuj hnub 11, xyoo 2001, tau muaj ob tug ntxhais hmoob uas tau mus tuag nyob lub pag dej Millerton ze Fresno, California. Nkawd tau siv ib txoj siv tawv los khi nkawd ob lub cev ua ke, ua ntej yuav mus dhia pas dej. Ib tug yog Paj Nyiag Xyooj uas muaj 17 xyoo, hos ib tug yog Yis Yaj muaj 21 xyoo. Vim li cas ob tug ntxhais no tau mus dhia dej tuag? Qhov tseeb uas daim ntawv xovxwm Fresno Bee tau qhia tawm yog li no: Paj Nyiag tham Yis Yaj li tham ib tug hluas nraug. Leej niam yeej tsis pom zoo li: nws piav rau Paj Nyiag hais tias, nyob ntawm kev cai Hmoob, tej kev sib hlub li no muaj tsis tau. (Fresno Bee, 2002). Ces ob tug hluas nkauj nkes thiaj cia li mus dhia dej tuag.
Tej yam teeb meem tshwm sim tshiab li no yeej ua chaw xav ntau yam: cov laus tsis pom qab yuav nrhiav kev lo kho li cas. Thaum muab txoj sia los ua lus qhia lub siab rau sawvdaws thim xav, sawv daws yuav tau tig rov los xav seb puas tsim nyog sib kho. Yog peb tsis los kho tej no ne, dab tsi yuav tawm tuaj ntxiv thiab? Li cas los, yeej tsis yoojyim kiag. Tab sis yuav tsum muaj kev taug xwb yog peb sawvdaws koom tau siab thiab pom hais tias muaj nqi.


III. Kev Ua Neeg Nkes thiab Kev kawm txog los ntawv cov "Sciences"


Rawv li cov kev tshawb fawb nrhiav, lawv xav paub seb kev ua neeg nkes no yog tim roj ntsha los sis yog tim neeg kev coj xwb. Cov tub ntxhais tshawb nrhiav kuj nrhiav tau ntau yam txog cov tib neeg nkes. Tiam sis lawv kuj hais tias tseem tshuav ntau yam es lawv paub tsis tas txog los sis tsis tag thiab. Pivtxwv tias lawv tseem tsis tau paub tseeb tias puas yog ib tug neeg cov roj ntsha (genetics) los nws kev qhuab qhia cob menyuam (nurture) es thiaj ua rau menuam loj hlob mus ua neeg nkes (Wikipedia, 2006). Cov lawv paub zoo yog:
1. cov txiv neej nkes lub hlwb zoo xws li poj niam lub hlwb.
2. cov txiv neej nkes cov taub teg (fingerprint) zoo li poj niam cov
3. cov menyuam ntxaib, yog tias muaj ib tug yog nkes,ces tus tod yeej muaj feem puas ntau yuav ua nkes thiab. (Wikipedia, 2006)
Tam si no, muaj ntau lub koomhaum coj qhia tau pom tias kev ua neeg nkes no txwv tsis tau li, hloov tsis tau. Thaum ub, lawv tau xav yuam kev hais tias kev ua nkes no hloov tau vim hais tias lawv ntseeg hais tias kev ua nkes yog tim kab mob uas yuav kho tau. Thaum cov koomhaum tig los ntseeg tias kev ua nkes no tsis yog tim kab mob lawm, lawv thiaj tau hais tawm tias tsis toob kaas kho txawm hais tias tseem tshuav ib txhia neeg kho mob uas tseem ntseeg tias kev nkes no kho tau. Tiam sis tsuas hnov lawv hais xwb, tsis muaj ib yam tshuaj dabtsi los kho kiag (Wikipedia, 2006).
Raws li daim ntawv suav neeg Demographics Census 2000, muaj li 132 khub niam txiv hmoob nkes nyob rau hauv tebchaws Asmeslivkas. Cov coob nyob rau lub lav Kaslisfausnias (California) uas muaj 55 khub los tshaj. Lav thij 2 yog Misnesxaustas uas muaj li 28 khub. Cov lav muaj tsawg xws li 1 khub xwb yog Aslavxaskas (Alaska), Ntsausntsias (Georgia), Ausresnkawn (Oregon), Xawv Kesrauslaisnas (South Carolina), Yustas (Utah), thiab Wavsiisteem (Washington). (ACCEPT, 2000)

Nyob rau daim ntawv xov xwm Hmong Today, Xeeb Lauj, ib tug tub hluas Hmoob, yuav yog thawj tug uas tau sau tawm txog nws txoj kev yug ua nkes. Nws hais li no: Txij thaum nws niam yug nws, nws pib nyiam txiv neej thaum nws tseem yau lawm. Nws xav hais tias kev ua nkes tsis yog ib qho txhaum kev cai vim hais tias nws niam nws txiv yug tau nws los zoo li ntawd: nws pauv tsis tau nws tus kheej. Txoj kev hlub ntawm ob tug neeg nkes yeej yog nyias yeem nyias: tsis txhaum kev cai dab tsi yog yus muaj tshaj 18 xyoo. Nws ntseeg tau tias yeej yog vim nws niam nws txiv yug tau nws los zoo li ntawm no. Qho ntawd tsis yog tim leejtwg los sis kab mob dab tsi. Nyob ntawm nws tus kheej, nws xav tias nws yeej yog ib tug tib neeg es yug los rau hauv lub ntiaj teb no los coj li ntawd ces yog nws txoj hmoov. (Hmong Today, 2004)



IV. Neeg kev nkag siab rau kev ua nkes- Cultural/Societal Aspect on being Hmong and Gay


Vim li cas feem coob tsis nyiam neeg nkes? Tej zaum, yuav yog vim neeg kev pom kev ua neej: neeg ntseeg tau hais tias yog ib tug txiv neej tsis yuav pojniam ces nws tsis muaj me tub me nyuam, qhov no yog ib qho tsis zoo. Tsis zoo vim li cas? Muaj ntau qhov yuav qhia tau: cia kuv piav ib qho. Niam txiv ib txwm vam thiab ntshaw tias lawv tej menyuam yuav los tuav lawv lub npe thiab ua kwv tij sib pab sib hlub. Yog tus menyuam yog neeg nkes ces tsis muaj kev vam yuav tau xeeb leej xeeb ntxwv los khawv lub noob neej cab ces mus. Tsev neeg ntawd yuav tus noob. Neeg Hmoob ntsia yam no muaj nqi tshaj rau lawv lub neej. (Hawj, 2006)
Tab sis, nyob tej lub zos xws li Minnesota, cov thawj coj ntawm cov neeg ntseeg ntuj thiab ib txhia nom tswv tsis txaus siab tso cai rau cov neeg nkes sib yuav. Ob pab neeg sib koom ua ke los hais rau pej xeem thiab lub zos hais tias txiv neej yuav txiv neej los sis poj niam yuav poj niam yuav txhaum kev lis kev cai. Kev sib yuav tsuas pub rau ib tug txij neej twg yuav ib tug pojniam twg xwb. (Hmong Today, 2004)


V. Kev Txhim Kho Rau Yav Tom Ntej


Tam si no, cov Hmoob nkes muaj peev xwm tawm suab tawm npe coob leej. Lawv xav piav lawv lub neej thiab tej kev lawv xam pom rau sawvdaws paub vim hais tias lawv xav kom sawvdaws nkag siab hais tias lawv kuj yog neeg tib yam thiab. Txij thaum cov Hmoob nkes tawm suab zuj zus, ob peb lub koom haum pib los pab txhawb lawv thiab. Phiab Xyooj uas yog ib tug social worker nyob rau Minnesota, cia siab tias sawvdaws yuav pib nkag siab rau cov Hmoob nkes. Nws pib tau ib lub koom haum hu ua SOY, Shades of Yellow. Muaj li 35 leej neeg los thov kev pab ntawm lub koos haum SOY. Nws lub homphiaj pab cov neeg nkes yog los piav lawv tej kev txom nyem, tej yam es neeg tsis paub txog thiab ua kom cov neeg nkes thiab lawv niam lawv txiv sib haum xeeb sib zam (Jackson, 2006).
Thaum lub 1 hlis ntuj, hnub 21, xyoo 2006, lub koom haum SOY pib ib lub peb caug rau cov neeg nkes. Muaj li 300 leej tau tuaj koom thiab saib cov ntxhais hluas hnav khaub ncaws hmoob los seev cev rau sawvdaws saib. Muaj noj mov, hais paj huam, thiab piav txog cov neeg nkes tej neej rau sawvdaws hnov. Nws ntseeg tau tias yog sawvdaws pib paub zuj zus txog tej yam no ces sawvdaws yuav tsis tshua ntshai txog lawm. Thaum muaj neeg paub zuj zus, kev ntshai ploj lawm ces kev cia siab thiab sib vam yuav tshwm sim tuaj. Thaum zoo li no lawm, tej kev los sib tham sib kho ntawm cov neeg nkes thiab tsis nkes yuav pib. Tej zaum nyob rau hauv tej dab qhua yuav muaj kev los hloov kom haum rau cov Hmoob nkes. Tej zaum cov niam cov txiv yuav pib nkag siab rau lawv cov menyuam uas yog neeg nkes. Tej zaum cov kwv tij neej tsa yuav kam pib los sib tham sib kho ntawm tej kev lis kev cai kom nrhiav tau ib txoj kev rau sawvdaws taug. Tej zaum dab qhua yuav tsis thooj li tej poj koob yawm txwv ua cia. Tiam sis, ua li no yuav ib qhib kev rau cov neeg nkes taug thiab.
Hmoob kev ua dab ua qhua yeej hloov tau vim twb hloov ntau zaus lawm xws li hauv tsev neeg Hmoob Lis xya txim: tej laus ua dab neeg piav hais tias niam thiab txiv hlub hlub ntxhais vauv ces thaum ua dab roog thiaj li qee ob tais rau ntxhais vauv, ua rau cov Hmoob lis thiaj mus ua Hmoob Lis xya txim (rau 7 lub tais). Tej dab qhuas no twb hloov tau vim kev hlub. Li no, yuav tsum muaj kev kho tau kev cai dab qhuas kom taug tau rau cov tib neeg nkes thiab. Dab qhuas los yeej yog los ntawm lub qhov ncauj xwb.


VI. Lus Xaus


Txawm hais tias lawm tus neeg los sis yus tus neeg yog nkes, nws yeej yog ib tug neeg muaj siab muaj ntsws tib yam li sawvdaws thiab. Cov neeg nkes yeej ntshaw txoj kev hlub thiab xav kom nom tswv pub cai rau lawv muaj txij muaj nkaws xws teb xws chaw, muaj ib tug hlub lawv pab lawv mus txog hnub lawv pub 120 xyoo. Li no, sawv dwas yuav tau los xav txog txoj kev ntsaw kev sib hluv. Tej zaum yuav tau hloov Hmoob Kev lis kev cai sib yuav uas pub tus txiv neej nkes ua tshoob thiab tus poj niam nkes ua tshoob thiab. Vim hais tias tej kev cai no yog neeg tsim rau neeg taug xwb. Yog li ntawd, peb yuav tsum sib kho kom txhob muaj kev sib cais ntawv cov neeg nkes thiab cov neeg tsis yog nkes vim hais tias sawvdaws yeej muaj kev npau suav tib yam, muaj kev cia siab tib yam. Peb sawv daws yog neeg xwb, peb sawv daws ntshaw kev hlub xwb.

Tus sau : Lindy Her

Source : Hmong Contemporary issues - Kao-Ly Yang

Laissez nous vos messages et remarques ici

http://gayhmong.bbactif.com/portal.htm?pid=22




Gay Hmong Coming Out
2010/04/09 CONTEMPORARY ISSUES
Hmong Gay : When men fall in love with men, and
Women with women 
                                                     
                                                
Original text in Hmong Language
      
      Guest writer:
Lindy Her-Lee
     
Translated by Kao-Ly Yang

Keywords: Txij neej nyiam txiv neej / Gay; Txij neej rov qab sib nyiam los sis poj niam rov qab sib nyiam / homosexuality; Kev hloov hauv Hmoob lub neej / social change; neeg yog pojniam thiab txiv neej / transsexuality


Foreword: For the past 3 years, while teaching Hmong language and culture, I have observed that the theme of gay and lesbianism interests  a lot Hmong students: they often asked questions about the topic, and even proposed semester projects as the one that Lindy has written here. I am aware that this theme is still very sensitive, capable to hurt deeply parents and children, and gives birth to debate, misundertanding and conflicts. People still question the soundness of homosexuality whether or not it is against nature. I decided to publish Lindy's work because I think it is important to think more about the taboo and the forbidden that pushes the frontiers of human behaviors and reinvente societies, gender roles. Let's keep in mind that the gay and lesbian issue has dimensions that are different in a patrilinear society where men are the holders of the tradition and identity. In fact, Hmong gays and lesbians do face a bigger challenge: they have to overcome a double rejection, e.g from their own community and the Mainstream society. It is not good to be gay or lesbian in the Hmong community because there is no alternative other than becoming a marginalized person living on the edge. This issue is a very serious issue that we all need to take time to talk about because we need to understand the homosexuality in which a small fraction of the after-1975 generation openly chooses to live. Beyond collective fear of transgression of the norms, we shall recognize that being an outspoken gay or lesbian is still an act of courage and of integrity. Kao-Ly Yang PhD Editor


I. A case of Transsexual in Laos
      "When I lived in Laos, I have seen a woman of about 40 years old who asked my parents for a night lodging. This woman wore female clothes but behaved like a man. She claimed to know magical tricks, healing charms, other special  skills. Her name  had a female as well as a male names in. At that time, I was 10 years old. I never saw such a person so that I asked my mom: "
Why does she wear female clothes and speak like a man? " No one was able to answer my question. That night, my parents asked her why her name was composed of a male and a female names. She finally gave the reason: when she was born, she had the "two parts", the male and the female sexes at the same time. When she was young,  she was not really aware of her difference. Her parents were unable to help her. There were no doctor knowledgeable about this type of issue. Wen she became older, she knew that it was difficult to live and to find love among the Hmong people. She then decided to flee far from her family and became homeless, depending on others' charity and generosity. The Elders did not believe her at all. They said: "Impossible to believe you. You are lying! Can you show us your two parts?" This woman quietly answered: "Yes, I can. I  can  pull up my pans if you wish!" When she said that, no one dared speak up anymore."-H H, 2006

II. A New Emerging Issue: the Hmong Gays and Lesbians
According to the Hmong social system, the real support comes from the children and the close relatives. Filial pity insures prosperity and success. The Hmong people strongly honor their ancestors and their animist religion. Socio-political and religious authority belongs to men; as for women, their roles are limited to giving birth, taking care of the domestic life inside the household. When a daughter gets married, she  leaves her lineage to become a new member of another lineage where she will adopt her husband's religious pratices, names and family as her's. Hmong lifestyle and beliefs have been transmitted from one generation to another. Hmong people do not want their culture, religious practices dispear because they believe that their culture has its uniqueness, which makes the Hmong people a distinctive group.
     
America is  a prosperous country where opportunities are numerous. Changes have been introduced in the Hmong behaviors, beliefs and lifestyle. The choice of espouses also became more complexed and questioning : there is now the emergence of a small group of  men and women who claimed to be gays or lesbians. In Hmong language,  I used the term of "Gay" spelled as  "NKES" to classify the group of gays and lesbians. This new phenomenon could not be hidden anymore. There are Hmong gays and lesbians in the Hmong community.   Being a gay or a lesbian is still something new inside the community. Some members do not know yet how to consider the phenomenon wether it is true or false. People are curious about this issue. Questions emerged. Why do some women become lesbians, some men, gays?   How could a woman love a woman, and a man, a man?
     
How could one accept homosexuality? Whatever the community may say, we all need to talk more about it to better find ways to handle it. If one day, two men decided to get married, how could families handle that?  Should they allow them to do the traditional wedding? If yes, what to do in fact? Who is the bride, who is the groom?  The same questions might arise as for lesbians'wedding ? We cannot avoid such events even if the  Hmong community is still very conservative and traditionalist. However, does accepting marrriages of gays and lesbians generate possible spiritual conflicts? If yes, what should we do to prevent them (Hawj, 2006)? Tjose questions are real questions. Even if a fraction of the Hmong community did convert to Christianity, the majority of the Hmong people are still very respectful, rigide toward their traditional beliefs and social practices. In consequence, what could the Hmong gay and lesbian community do to live in harmony within all their difference? For simple needs of everyday life for example, there are problems: who could parents address a daughter-in law if he is a man, a son-in law if she is a woman? 
   
The 11th of May 2001, there were two young girls who committed suicide in throwing themselves in the Millerton lake, near Fresno, California. They used a leather bell to tie themselves before jumping into the water. One, Panhia Xiong, was 17 old years. The other, Yee Yang,  was 21 old years. Why did they commit suicide ? The explanation the newspaper Fresno Bee has given was that they were lovers: Panhia's mother was against the relationship because it is something totally against Hmong way of living: a woman cannot love another woman  (Fresno Bee, 2002).
     
Such an event has shaked the whole community and made people pose questions:  the Hmong Elderly hoders of the traditions have no idea on how to handle such a new phonemenon. But, when people are capable to die for such a thing, there is urgent needs for all to take time to analyze the situations to better  understand the issue and to learn to cope with gay and lesbian issue, before worse scenarios happen. Whatever we do, it is not easy at all. I believe there must be solutions if we all are capable to unite to discuss the issue and become aware that it is a serious issue.


III. Homosexuality and  "Sciences"
     
According to research, there are two main  hypotheses. Gay and lesbian phenomenon may be du to genetics and/or socialization (Wikipedia, 2006). The current findings emphazise on these observations :
1. Gay's brains have more similar features with women's brains.
2. Gay's fingerprints look like women's
3. Twins: if one is gay or lesbian, the other has important chance to become homosexual too ((Wikipedia, 2006)

       There are currently some professional organizations who advocate for a better understanding of homosexuality. Before, these organizations have supposed that they could change gay or lesbian sexual behaviors because it would be an illness that one could cure. But some have changed their working hypothesis:  it is not an illness anymore that they could cure (Wikipedia, 2006).
      The outcome of the Demographics Census 2000 showed there are 132 Hmong homosexual couples in the US. In California, there are more than 55 couples. In Minnesota, there are 28 declared couples. In the states where there are less Hmong such as Alaska, Georgia, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, or Washington, we found  a few couples. (ACCEPT, 2000)

In  the newspaper
Hmong Today, Xeng Lau,  a young Hmong man , may be the first to openly talk about his homosexuality. He said he started to like men since his childhood. He thinks that being a gay is not against the law of the Hmong culture because his parents made him who he is; he cannot change himself. Love between gay people depends upon individual's choice; it doesn't go against law of this country if both lovers have legal age. He is gay, the cause is not either somebody's fault or illness. It is more a fate that he totally accepted  (Hmong Today, 2004)


IV. Cultural/Societal Aspect on being Hmong and Gay
     
Why do people dislike homosexual people? The reason may be mostly cultural. Some people believe that homosexuals cannot give birth to perpetuate, to reproduce the community, which leads to the death of the culture and its poeple. In the Hmong community, children are crucial for the preservation of th ethnic group in extending the network of social support.If a child is gay or lesbian, there is no possible way of bilateral and generational exchange. Parents cannot count on their children to transmit the culture. There is no hope.  This lineage will come to an end of its genes (Hawj, 2006).
     However, in Minnesota, Church and community leaders have gathered to prostest against legal weddings of homosexual people. Such weddings will be agains the law. (Hmong Today, 2004)


V. The Needs and the Outcomes
     Many of the gays and lesbians take stand for their sexual orientation. They want to share their struggles so that more people would become more aware of the difficulties of being a homosexual.  At the same time, a few organzations have arised to support the causes of the gay and lesbian community. Phia Xiong,  a social worker in Minnesota, started an organization that he called SOY, Shades of Yellow where he would like to reach the general population. His long term target are to developing awareness and sensitivity in sharing gays and lesbians' experiences and struggles unknown by others, and to bridging understanding between parents and their gay and/or lesbian children for tolerance and forgiveness. There are about 35 people who have participated to the activités of the SOY. (Jackson, 2006).
     
The 21th of January 2006, the organization SOY has innovated a Hmong New Year for the gay and lesbian people. There were about 300 attendees wearing traditional costumes. There were  activities such as singing, picnic, and sharingl experiences. Phia Xiong believes that such an activity will decrease the gaps betwen homosexuals and heterosexuals so that one group won't feel afraid of the other group. When people openly talk more about differences, there will less ignorance, and more possible communication from each other.
Thus, in the long term, there will be possible dialogs regarding spiritual issues such as practices of traditional weddings for gay and lesbian people, parents's tolerance, communication inside lineages.
     
In fact, it may be possible to modify Hmong religious practices to incorporate gay and lesbian weddings. There were already changes, changes that have occured several times in the past centuries, and that are still remembered by Elderly. In the  lineage of the "Lee 7 sons", the  Elderly still talk about one of the changes during an essential rite only  reserved for the members of the lineage where there was innovation of a forbidden practive: the lineage had socially accepting and spiritually integrating a couple of son-in-law and daughter even if they were outsiders. So it is possible to make exception for other cases or situations if parents, lineages really love and care about their children. There won't be any offense to the spirits of the lineages if all accept the new practices.


VI. Conclusion
Whoever you are, whatever you believe,  all men and women are human beings. Gay and lesbian people also wish for love, lasting relationhips, legal recognition for them to live together. I think we shall understand that love is the core of this issue. We shall change Hmong wedding practices so that gay and lesbian people will be able to find a place because culture, law are made my people, so people could make a way for all to walk in.  We shall learn from each other to improve our understanding and our communication so that there won't be any fragmentation, social division of our community in closed mind groups that fight again each other, and weaken the growth of the group. All our dreams turn to the same hope: we all are human beings, and only hope for love. 


                                        





Bibliographic References
1.H, H, Personal interview, asthiv 7, lub 4 hlis ntuj 2006,
2.Homosexuality and Medical Science.Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homosexuality_and_medical_science
3.Jackson, Tom. Nearly Invisible. Gay Asians with HIV. Gay News Blog. Sau rau hnub 21, lub 1 hli, xyoo 2006.
http://www.gaynewsblog.typepad.com/gay_news_blog/2006/01/21/
4.Lawj, Xeeb. Gay-Lesbian-Bisexual-Transgender Hmong People. Hmong Today. Sau rau hnub 11, lub 3 hli, xyoo 2004.
http://www.hmongtoday.com/displaynews.asp?ID=1542
5.Lost in America:Embracing the Forbidden. Fresno Bee. Sau rau hnub 11, lub 8 hli, xyoo 2002.
http://www.fresnobee.com/special/hmong/pnxiong/
6.Mouachuepao, Kathy. GLBT Hmong Coming Out Party. Hmong Today. Sau rau hnub 3, lub 2 hli, xyoo 2006.
http://www.hmongtoday.com/displaynews.asp?ID=2144
7.Mouachuepao, Kathy. Religious Leaders Rally Against Gay Marriage. Hmong Today. Sau rau hnub 20, lub 5 hli, xyoo 2004.
http://www.hmongtoday.com/displaynews.asp?ID=1617
8.Tucker, Denis. ACCEPT. Accepting Cultural Change Through Education, Prevention, and Trust.
www.acceptgayhmong.org
9.Vang, Keng. Welcome to My World, GayHmong!
http://www.geocities.com/gayhmong/


The essay  was written for the "Hmong Advanced course 101" at California State University of Fresno, May 2, 2006


Copyrights 2006 Lindy Her-Lee
All rights reserved


http://www.hmongcontemporaryissues.com/archives/HmongGayLindyEnglish051906.html





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